H.E. Mr. Buti Saeed Al Ghandi

H.E. Mr. Buti Saeed Al Ghandi

Chancellor, Canadian University Dubai

Dr. Karim Chelli

Dr. Karim Chelli

CEO/President, Canadian University Dubai

Dr. Efthymios Papatzikis

Assistant Professor in Educational Neuroscience, Canadian University Dubai

Prof. Evelyn Orman

Professor of Music Education, University of North Carolina at Charlotte

Research Presenters

  • Graça Boal-Palheiros

    Graça Boal-Palheiros

    Polytechnic Institute of Porto – Portugal

    Pedro Santos Boia

    Polytechnic Institute of Porto - Portugal

    Perceptions and Practices of Music Teacher Graduates from the Porto School of Education

    This study is part of a research project to investigate school music practices and music teacher education, and to understand how the innovative model of music teacher training implemented at the Porto School of Education (SE) in 1986 has contributed to develop music teachers and transformed school music education. This case study of the Porto SE is an example of the 1980’s reforms in Portuguese music teacher education. It consisted of 1) mapping the music teachers who graduated from the Porto SE, in order to know their profiles, and 2) carrying out a questionnaire to analyze their opinions about the course and their teaching practices in schools.

    The results indicated that most participants think the course prepared them ‘very well’ for teaching. They emphasized teaching practice, and instrumental and vocal practice as the most relevant course contents. The predominance of music making in their teaching, according to the conceptual underpinnings of the course, suggests that the course influenced the graduates’ professional practice. Difficulties identified include insufficient resources, insufficient curricular time for music, and pupils’ behavior. Knowing these difficulties may help rethink both initial and continuing training.

    Keywords: school music education, music teacher education

  • Ruth Brittin

    Ruth Brittin

    University of the Pacific

    String Orchestra with a Twist: Responses to a Novel Rehearsal Structure

    This paper documents a novel rehearsal structure for one high school and two middle schools’ orchestras. The orchestra director distributed different rehearsal objectives across days of the week in a unique way, over eight weeks. Students (n = 112) shared their perspectives on this approach at the end of the unit.  Results showed a mix of opinions on the rehearsal structure itself, and towards the traditional folk music and improvisation featured on Fridays.  Overall, students preferred the activities of the days most closely resembling conventional school orchestra activities (“Work It Wednesday” and “Run It Thursday”).  Many students articulated their appreciation of studying a different genre of music and learning to play by ear and improvising, with some expressing unease. There were interesting differences in males’ and females’ responses to “Fiddle Tune Fridays”. Boys expressed having more knowledge of the genre before the unit than girls, and consistently had a higher preference for this music, though both groups significantly increased in mean preferences to the music with instruction. These patterns may prove interesting for future research.

    Keywords: preference, orchestra, conducting, fiddle, improvisation, pedagogy

  • Melissa Brunkan

    Melissa Brunkan

    University of Oregon – USA

    Effects of Two Singers Gestures on Acoustic and Perceptual Measures of Solo Singing

    This investigation examined the potential effects of two singer gestures on performances of solo singers (N = 32). Research questions that guided this study were: 1. Are there significant acoustical differences in solo sound (a) between baseline and posttest conditions and (b) between baseline performance and each of five successive, intervening performances employing a particular gesture based on measures of deviation in cents from target fundamental frequency and amplitude (dB)? and 2. Do singer perceptual responses indicate differences in solo sound (a) between baseline and posttest conditions, and (b) between baseline performance and each of five successive, intervening performances employing an arm gesture?

    Each song (“Over the Rainbow” with low, circular arm gesture and “Singin’ in the Rain” with pointing gesture) was sung five times: Baseline (without singer gesture), three iterations of each song paired with a singer gesture, and a posttest (without singer gesture). This investigation measured acoustic (Fo and amplitude) and perceptual (participant perceptual questionnaire) differences of solo singers. Major findings indicated acoustic changes in intonation and amplitude while singing with gesture. Solo singers were more in tune when singing with the pointing gesture. Further, when performing with the low, circular and the pointing gestures, singers sang with increased amplitude. The majority of participant comments related to intonation and timbre when using gestures. Results were discussed in terms of singing pedagogy, limitations of the study, and suggestions for further research.

    Keywords: singing, gesture, movement, pitch

  • Julia Brook

    Julia Brook

    Queen's University – Canada

    Using Photo Elicitation to Examine Students’ Perceptions of a Sistema-Inspired Program

    Sistema programs have been established around the globe and several studies have profiled the many positive attributes associated with these ensemble-based programs. Often missing in these studies is the voice of the student. Therefore, this research study examined the extent to which a photo-elicitation methodology allowed students to actively engage in the research project and share their perceptions of the Sistema program. Photo Elicitation is a research methodology where students are asked to respond to or interpret a series of pictures. This allows students to actively manipulate the data. Moreover, relying on photos rather than written text allows students who may struggle with spoken language to participate. Participants included twenty-three elementary children participating in a string-based Sistema-inspired program in Ontario, Canada. Students were asked to construct a poster entitled “My Sistema” using photos that featured the various music and non-music activities, candid shots, and photos of the adults and other children associated with the program. Participants were also given a package of markers to draw or decorate the poster. Findings illuminated a meaningful and engaging research activity where participants proudly constructed posters about this program and were interested in keeping these data for themselves. The posters profiled music and ensemble-based playing to varying degrees and many posters also included non-music activities and profiled peers, teachers and other adults associated with the program. Further findings illuminate how for many of these children the Sistema program went beyond playing in a large ensemble.

    Keywords: Photo-elicitation, Sistema, music ensemble

  • Sabine Chatelain

    Sabine Chatelain

    University of Teacher Education HEP VAUD – Switzerland

    Marcelo Giglio and Marcelle Moor

    University of Teacher Education BEJUNE – Switzerland

    Teacher Techniques for Talking with Students about Knowledge Mobilized During Creative Musical Productions

    How can teachers ascertain the musical knowledge of their secondary school students following collective music productions? In creative music-making tasks, teachers should connect subject specific knowledge with several fields of students’ experience in order to foster music learning. Following previous work about supporting creative collaboration in music education at school, the goal of this study is to observe the techniques teachers use to talk with students in order to identify their knowledge mobilized after a shared creative music-making task inspired by abstract paintings. The video recordings of 29 small groups of students aged from 11 to 15 years old from seven different classes capture two precise moments during the lesson. The first of these moments is that of students presenting their final productions to their classmates and teacher. The second moment is when the teacher talks with his or her students about the composition process, and their final creation in relation to the abstract painting. The analysis shows techniques that teachers use in order to talk with students. This study helps to better understand teachers’ needs in order to successfully stimulate music learning in creative musical situations, and shows how different fields of students’ experience are connected to music learning.

    Keywords: teacher-student talk, music learning, shared creative music-making, musical knowledge

  • Deborah Confredo

    Deborah Confredo

    Temple University – USA

    Joseph Parisi and Justin Doss

    University of Missouri-Kansas City – USA

    Tradition, Camaraderie, Respect, Passion, and Performance: The Impact of Community Bands on Italian and American Musicians

    We examined perceptions of benefits and reasons cited by Italian and American community band participants. The paper reports the qualitative data generated open-ended prompts. Themes (n = 79) were identified and frequency counts were taken for each. The most frequently-noted themes across all responses as well as the largest differences in theme prevalence between Italian and American responses are reported. Italians participate in community band primarily because of camaraderie; Americans for performance and love of music. Italians’ memorable experiences were strongly associated with travel while the Americans cited specific performances. The most important things learned through the experience for all were musical growth and camaraderie. Suggestions for improving the community band experience focused largely on practice, preparation, rehearsals, and repertoire. Responses from both groups demonstrated more similarities than differences in perceived benefits derived from community band.

    Keywords: community band, adult learning, community music

  • Emily Good-Perkins

    Emily Good-Perkins

    Teachers College, Columbia University – USA

    Arab Students’ Perceptions of University Music Education in the United Arab Emirates: A Discussion of Music Education and Cultural Relevance

    To be a twenty-year-old in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) requires the ability to juggle opposing worlds. The fast-paced hyperactivity of commerce and development—tallest buildings, firsts in the world— counters the interconnected family with traditions that represent shadows of a tribal past. Although, globalization has undoubtedly transformed the UAE, many cultural traditions and values remain deeply embedded within society.  Musical traditions, however, have been profoundly impacted both by the Westernized media and the subsequent religious reaction to it. Within UAE society, the intersection of globalization and religion has manifested in complex and varied musical discourses.

    This study explores with five Arab young adults their perceptions of Western and Arabic musical cultures as well as their perceptions of the Western classical vocal teaching they experienced at an American-modeled university in the United Arab Emirates.  Of particular interest are issues of cultural relevance and the role of music and music education in Arab society.  Data collection methods for this study included individual, semi-structured interviews with each participant and three focus group discussions.

    Keywords: cultural relevance; music education; UAE

  • Ana Lucía Frega

    Ana Lucía Frega

    Fundación Universidad Argentina de la Empresa – Argentina

    The Seeds of the “International Seminar on Experimental Research in Music Education, Reading, UK, July 1968”

    Documented evidence and personal memories of events that occurred during the 7th ISME World Conference in Interlochen, Michigan, in 1966 generated the realization of the first International Seminar mentioned in the title will be shared. From then on, the ISME Research Commission was created and 27 international seminars have taken place to date.

    On that occasion, Dr. Bengt Frazen’s address, “The place of research in music education,” presented in plenary, established some vital points to improve music education at the time, and looking toward the future, for all and all over: (a) thematic orientations of applied research for the daily classroom practices of music teachers working in diverse levels on different music subjects, and (b) pertinent questions, “which perhaps are ardent for the Swedish music teachers but also for colleagues in other countries” (BF paper, 1966).

    “Through a close collaboration between teachers and investigators the adaptation of the music education to the situation of today and tomorrow will be improved. And in this connection, I wish to pay homage to the Journal of Research in Music Education (…) a valuable publication…” (BF op. cit.). Thus, the international relevance of the ISME USA for improving applied research, and the importance of dissemination were explicitly proposed.

    As a result and continuation of the action promoted and started in 1966 (personal reports of AB & John Ritchie), the creation in situ of the ISME Research Commission and the adoption of this standardized meeting model (structure) over time favored a scientific and systematic improvement of research-based music education.

  • Christopher M. Johnson

    Christopher M. Johnson

    University of Kansas – USA

    John M. Geringer

    Florida State University – USA

    Timing Patterns of Professional and Student Conductors: An Exploratory Study

    This project examined patterns of tempo variations chosen by expert and novice conductors. Volunteer participants from three levels of expertise were asked to learn and conduct the first 40 measures (10 phrases) of the Yorkshire Ballad by James Barnes. We used a unique software program developed for studying conducting patterns: Participants’ arm motions were detected by a Wii™ controller and used in real-time to control the tempo of an audio recording. The only musical element controlled by the conductor was the rhythmic flow/onset of each sequential beat. When the participants had generated a tempo performance of the excerpt with which they were pleased, the chosen performance was analyzed to ascertain their musical decisions. Results indicated that there were consistent patterns of rubato in the conducting of the piece that could be related to both the structure of the phrases as well as the overall structure of the composition. Analysis of the use of rubato in an ensemble setting could provide interesting relationships between these conducting performances and previous studies of solo performances, and may begin to demonstrate whether rubato tendencies in group performances conform to common practice expectations.

    Keywords: Rubato, Tempo Variation, Conducting, Ensemble Performance

  • Clifford K. Madsen

    Clifford K. Madsen

    Florida State University – USA

    Emily A. Glaser

    The University of Kansas – USA

    Robert H. Clark

    Florida State University – USA

    Christopher M. Johnson

    The University of Kansas – USA

    Developing Desired Nonverbal Responses in Pre-Service Music Educators and Music Therapists and the Effect of Instruction on that Development

    The effectiveness with which teachers and therapists can communicate both nonverbal approval and disapproval can greatly impact the environment in which they work.  Changing these learned responses is difficult, especially when the interaction requires an instantaneous expression opposite from natural response. Music conductors, music teachers, and music therapists must develop appropriate facial affect to get desired results in their unique professional settings. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the development of these facial affects and then to examine the effects of two different nonverbal training methodologies on the ability of music education and music therapy students to effectively and quickly deliver identifiable nonverbal reinforcement. The first was guided practice; the second was a regimented, systematic set of lessons and application.  Results indicated that neither of these brief, but logically-planned methods were enough to influence substantial differences in peoples’ ability to communicate nonverbal neutral or disapproval expressions clearly.

    Keywords: facial expression, nonverbal, approval, disapproval, reinforcement

  • Nancy Abigael Masasabi

    Nancy Abigael Masasabi

    Maseno University – Kenya

    Interplay of Cultural Musical Identities and its Relevance to Music Education in Kenya: A Case of Kamabeka Dance

    The aim of this study is to determine how cultural music activities change and resist change in the formation of new identities at the Kenya Music Festival (KMF), and the implications of this interplay of identities to music education. The KMF is an annual carnival for educational institutions in Kenya. During this event, renditions of various musical cultures are exhibited, one of which is the Kamabeka dance of the Bukusu sub-tribe of the Abaluhya community in Kenya. This study examines how various musical and non-musical variables in performance of this dance interact within a community of practice to create a new musical identity that is uniquely KMF, but at the same time retaining the cultural identity that defines these activities. The study attempts to conceptualize how the context in which a musical activity is carried out interact with the music to construct a context specific identity, while at the same time retaining the activities’ culturally accepted identity, which transcends different performance contexts. To achieve this, the Culture-Information model of Creativity (Akuno, 2005) is used to explain the musical output that is dance. Findings show the core that identifies Kamabeka dance remains as a resistant entity in the process of appropriation and it is this that is the focal point of Kamabeka dance identity

    Keywords: Musical identity; Kamabeka dance; musical context; cultural change; Kenya Music Festival

  • Gwendolyn McGraw

    Gwendolyn McGraw

    Independent Researcher – USA

    A New View of Vocal Learning in Infancy: Song Acquisition Predicts Accelerated Speech Acquisition and Accelerated Clarity of Expressive Speech

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between song acquisition and speech acquisition in infancy. Using a mixed-methods research design, an auditioned children’s choir was selected as a purposive sample. Parents of 37 singers responded to questions regarding song acquisition, speech acquisition, and clarity of expressive speech in infancy. A power-size test for correlations indicated that the sample was larger than required to avoid Type I/II errors. Ordinal data with many tied scores met assumptions for Goodman & Kruskal’s Gamma test of correlation.  Analyses of parents’ responses to questions (surveys/follow-up interviews) indicated that 32 of 37 singers were tuneful by age two – and had parents who consistently sang to them, birth to two. Robust associations confirm that ongoing exposure to parents’ infant-directed singing predicts song acquisition in infancy – and that infants’ song acquisition predicts accelerated language acquisition. Results suggest that song acquisition in infancy supports efficient, accelerated learning of expressive speech. As a critical component of early vocal learning, infants’ song acquisition sets the stage for life’s journey through music and supports co-occurring language acquisition.

    Keywords: singing, infant, song acquisition, accelerated speech, speech clarity

  • Hiromichi Mito

    Hiromichi Mito

    Meiji Gakuin University – Japan

    School Choir Competition in Japan: Art or Athletics?

    The present study revealed the positive and negative aspects of choir competition in Japan, and finally discussed the healthy use of competition. Ten adults who had actively engaged in choir as an extracurricular activity volunteered for this study. All of them had participated in the NHK All-Japan School Choir Competition and/or the National Choral Competition. Five participants reached the final round of one of the competitions, and one won first prize during the final round. Three participants reached the semi-final round. Although the remaining two participants did not progress in the competition, they won silver and gold medals, respectively, in the preliminary round. The author conducted semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions. The interviews started by asking why they started participating in the choir and what choir activity meant for them. The participants were also asked to describe the human relationships within the choir groups, their ideas about winning the prize, and what they achieved through choir activities. The Modified Grounded Theory Approach (M-GTA) was adopted to analyze the interview transcripts. Findings showed all participants were highly interested in winning the prize, and some said definitively that winning the prize was more important than musical achievement. On the contrary, there were many participants who placed more importance on musical achievement and musical enjoyment; even the participants who stated that winning the prize was their priority noted that they obtained considerable musical meaning from engaging in choir competition.

    Keywords: Choir Competition, School, Musical Development, Influence of Teacher, Extracurricular Activity

  • Karabo Lucy Mogane

    Karabo Lucy Mogane

    University of Pretoria – South Africa

    Using Creative Musical Arts to Activate Creativity in Young Children

    The musical arts play a critical role in engaging one to use their creativity. Engaging young children to partake in musical arts activities is often viewed as inferior to most academic subjects by some teachers and parents in contemporary African societies. In the school environment, most attention is given to academic subjects as there are misconceptions that creativity is not important though research has proven otherwise. An involvement and participation in the musical arts engages children in the making of artistic creations, creative thinking, musical arts literacy development and a development in the understanding of the musical arts as cultural products.

    The purpose of this study was to activate creativity by encouraging young African primary school children from two different cultural backgrounds to produce and perform their original musical arts production and to explore how creative they were. Observational field notes collected during the production process and performance were used to collect data. Various creative assessment inventories were used to measure the children’s creativity. The results indicated that the engagement of musical arts was able to reveal some elements of creativity amongst the children when they were encouraged to participate in musical arts activities.

    Keywords: Musical arts, creativity, creativity analysis

  • Harry E. Price

    Harry E. Price

    Kennesaw State University – USA

    Evelyn K. Orman

    The University of North Carolina at Charlotte – USA

    Music Dynamics and Conducting Variances: Reliability and Assessments

    Our study regards the affect that directors have on the perception of a performance and the quality that a piece’s dynamic expression has on assessing the conductor.  We also examined the reliability of some of the measurements that have been used in previous studies. Participants were 111 undergraduate music and nonmusic majors at two universities who assessed the recordings, which had one conductor directing expressively or not and music with or without changes in dynamics.  In addition to these four combinations, our participants also assessed expressive and unexpressive conducting with no sound as well as music with and without dynamic contrast that had a still picture. A Cronbach’s alpha assessment of the repeated item responses was reliable (p < .05) and a Scheffés post-hoc analysis of the eight orders found no difference between them.  Significant assessment differences were found between music students and those of other majors in four responses: conductor (still picture) with dynamics, unexpressive conducting with dynamics, as well as music performance and conductor evaluations for unexpressive conducting with no dynamic contrast. We also found some differences between the majors.  In one instance, the music majors rated the still conductor picture higher for the dynamics performance, even though the music was not rated differently.  Conversely, nonmajors rated the unexpressive conducting higher than did musicians, when the performance was expressive. 

    Keywords: music; conducting; dynamics; expressive conducting; assessment; evaluation

  • Luis Ricardo Silva Queiroz

    Luis Ricardo Silva Queiroz and Vanildo Mousinho Marinho

    Federal University of Paraíba – Brazil

    Interpreting Music Education in Brazilian Popular Culture: Challenges for Ethnographic Research

    This work presents results of a research conducted in the context of a Brazilian musical genre, Embolada, between the years of 2003 and 2015. Embolada is a musical-poetry genre that is sang, generally, by two singers. It is a music expression of northeastern Brazil that is commonly practiced in the popular culture of the Paraíba State. Considering this cultural context, we discuss, analyze, and reflect on ethnographic research in music education currently, evidencing how this research approach enabled us to investigate and comprehend the subjects, concepts, processes, situations, knowledge and skills that characterize the musical transmission in the Paraiba’s Embolada. This study is grounded on epistemological perspectives of music education and ethnomusicology and it was conducted from an ethnographic approach that has made possible an intensive interaction within the Embolada’s context and its performers. The research findings showed idiosyncrasies in the musical transmission in this context, demonstrating that its characterization defines fundamental elements of the musical performance in this culture. Elements that, shared and transmitted by the Embolada’s performers, keep Embolada alive, dynamic and in full activity in the contemporary times.

    Keywords: Ethnographic research; Music education and ethnomusicology; musical transmission; embolada; popular culture.

  • Suvi Saarikallio

    Suvi Saarikallio

    University of Jyväskylä – Finland

    At the Heart of Musical Competence: Music as Affective Awareness

    This paper is a theoretical postulation about how and why music can facilitate social-emotional competence. The paper combines research knowledge from general social-emotional competence models with recent music-specific literature from music cognition and psychology, music education and therapy, and music for health and wellbeing. Music is elaborated as an experience that allows integration of affective embodiment with self-reflective meaning making. This dialogical core between experience and meta-experience is discussed as the special feature of music as a medium for fostering social-emotional competence. The specific contribution of music to allow access to experiential-embodied yet self-reflective affective awareness is discussed as the special characteristic of music but also as a concept that resonates with the general understanding of social-emotional competence. The paper discusses this competence as a fundamental “building block” for other music-based competencies in the area of social emotional skills such as interaction and self-regulation, reflecting the relevance of this concept for research and practice.

    Keywords: music, affective awareness, social-emotional competence

  • Fred P. Spano

    Fred P. Spano

    The University of North Carolina at Charlotte – USA

    Perceptions of Transgender Individuals by Students Enrolled in United States University Music Programs: A Pilot Study

    This pilot study sought to determine perceptions by and toward transgender students in music programs in higher education with regard to support and marginalization. Three transgendered and 205 non-transgender individuals voluntarily responded to an online survey that contained adaptations of the US National Trans Survey (James, Herman, Rankin, Kelsling, Mottet, & Anafi, 2016) and the Attitudes Towards Transgender Individuals Scale (Walch, Ngamake, Francisco, Stitt, & Shingler, 2012).  Participants also provided demographic data including level of musical study, race/ethnicity, sexual identity, gender identity, year in college, and level of musical study.

    Overall, non-transgender participants (n  = 205) indicated favorable attitudes towards transgender individuals; however, Krusal-Wallis tests revealed significant differences on six responses of cisgender males and females. Results indicate college-age cisgender females enrolled as music majors may be more accepting of transgender individuals than their cisgender male counterparts. Given these findings more research is warranted.  If further research continues to show these same results, it seems useful for music teacher trainers to be aware of these biases, so they can provide learning experiences that would allow students to further explore and possibly question the negative assumptions.

    Keywords: music major, cisgender, transgender, perception

  • Christina Svec

    Christina Svec

    Iowa State University – USA

    Statistical Practices of Music Education Researchers: Analyses of Variance

    The purpose of the current study was to describe the statistical practices of researchers across three prominent music education research journals regarding analyses of variance. The current paper has included information specific to JRME and CRME from 2000–2015; information specific to Psychology of Music, and 2016 data from JRME and CRME is currently in progress.

    Research components of ANOVA, MANOVA, and ANCOVA analyses included power analysis, assumptions, descriptive statistics, coefficients, effect sizes, post-hoc analyses, validity, and reliability. Overall, the majority of articles published in JRME and CRME during the past 15 years have been quantitative in nature; 56% (JRME) and 47% (CRME) of the quantitative articles used analysis of variance procedures.

    Preliminary findings indicated research strengths including controlling for validity issues and reporting sample size and selection. Several weaknesses were also highlighted. Implications have been discussed for future research and research pedagogy.

    Keywords: research, effect size, assumptions

  • David Taylor

    David Taylor

    University of Sydney – Australia

    Cultural Attitudes to Authority and Preferences for Decision-Making Systems in the Amateur Choir Rehearsal: A Feasibility Study

    Research in other fields has shown that different cultures respond to authority in different ways. The current paper seeks to investigate whether these cultural attitudes manifest themselves in musical rehearsals in attitudes to the authority of the conductor, and does so by looking at a specific part of that authority – musical decision-making. In an online survey, 485 choristers from the UK and Australia were asked about their preferences for either conductor-only decision making or group-input decision making. Significantly more Australian respondents than British thought that rehearsals were less enjoyable when everyone could have a say. Furthermore, significantly more Australians felt annoyed by other choristers offering suggestions relating to the music during rehearsals. Findings suggest that a considered approach to the decision-making process by the conductor of a non-professional group is of high importance and something that should not be assumed or taken for granted. Existing research in this area is scant, and it is argued that more is needed to more fully educate and prepare choral conductors seeking to pursue international careers across a range of cultures and demographics.

    Keywords: Culture, authority, leadership, conducting, choirs, decision-making

  • TaiShun TSE

    TaiShun TSE and Jason Chi Wai Chen

    The Education University of Hong Kong – Hong Kong

    Compositional Thinking in Classical Music Within a Computer-Mediated Composition Environment

    This empirical study examines the relationship between cognitive thinking styles and composing strategies in classical music by analysing the work of 22 Hong Kong secondary students within a computer-mediated composition environment. A Yale scholar in psychology, Sternberg (1997), proposed that academic performance should not be the only indicator by which an individual’s success is judged. Instead, the measurement of success ought to rely more on the contexts of thinking and teaching styles together with the learning environment. In the first stage, a survey of students’ thinking styles was conducted to see which ‘type’ each belonged to. In the second stage, students’ innate computer-related abilities were demonstrated by observing their approaches to computer-mediated composition of classical music.

    This study aims to identify a correlation between an individual’s thinking style and his/her composing strategies. This correlation indicates three areas to emphasise in music curriculum development: 1. Personalised learning, which will help students develop composing strategies appropriate to different cognitive thinking styles; 2. The advantages of studying compositional thinking in a computer-mediated composition environment; and 3. The need to build students’ musical identities during the classical music composition process. At the end of this paper, a learner-thinking model in computer-mediated composition is proposed.

    Keywords: cognitive thinking styles; composing strategies; computer-mediated composition; compositional thinking, classical music

  • Graham F. Welch

    Graham F. Welch

    UCL Institute of Education – UK

    Jo Saunders

    UCL Institute of Education – UK

    Eva Wilde

    UCL Institute of Education – UK

    Kathryn Mason

    UCL Ear Institute & Psychology & Language Sciences – UK

    Lisa Maynard

    UCL Institute of Education – UK and James Madison University – USA

    Julian Knight

    Creative Futures, London - UK

    Sounding Out: A Research-Based Evaluation of a Specially Designed Music Programme for Young Hearing Impaired (HI) Adolescents

    The focus for the paper is a research evaluation of the opening two years of a specially designed three-year music programme for older Hearing Impaired (HI) children. The music programme Sounding Out is based in two London special secondary schools for HI pupils and involves adolescents in school Years 7 and 8 (pupils aged 12-13 years). Data for the evaluation were collected through systematic longitudinal observation, with individual pupil’s musical behaviours being tracked using the Sounds of Intent musical development framework for children and young people with special needs and disabilities. Overall, musical behaviour assessments were available for n = 16 HI pupils at five different points across the programme’s second year. Previously, in the opening year of the programme, the research team had focused on an in-depth induction into the two schools, including getting to know the participant HI pupils and observing their reactions to the music programme. Subsequent data analyses from the second year’s structured observations suggest that there was a significant trend for musical behaviours to become more advanced over time for the cohort as a whole and also within each participant school.

    Keywords: Hearing impaired, music, Sounds of Intent

  • Jennifer A. Whitaker

    Jennifer A. Whitaker and Evelyn K. Orman

    The University of North Carolina at Charlotte – USA

    Novice Music Conductors’ Perceptions of Cybersickness While Immersed in Spherical Video Virtual Environments

    This study examined novice conductors’ perceptions of spherical video virtual environments. Specifically, we focused on participants’ perceptions of cybersickness symptoms. Thirty-four undergraduate music majors, who served as conductors, each experienced two virtual reality sessions; one in which they conducted a faster work and one in which they conducted a slower work. After each session, they completed the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ; Kennedy et al., 1993). We calculated scores for Nausea, Oculomotor, and Disorientation subscales and Total Severity for each session as well as an overall mean total score.

    We found no statistical differences (p > .05) between our sample and those published for the SSQ. Additionally, there were no significant differences (p > .05) based on presentation order, gender, or tempo.  Results from this study show novice conductors’ perceptions of cybersickness generally aligned or were less than those reported in previous research outside of music. Based on these findings, we conclude that spherical video virtual environments may be useful in future music conducting research.

    Keywords: Virtual reality, cybersickness, conducting, spherical video environments, perception

  • Eva Wilde

    Eva Wilde

    UCL Institute of Education – UK

    Education In and Through Music for Children and Young People with ADHD

    The intention of the multiple case study research reported here was to investigate how and to what extent ADHD behaviour is evidenced in the context of children and young people’s music making. The methodology included structured observations and sequenced practical music making. Real-time observational data were gathered, supported by video and audio recordings, in a variety of settings related to individual ADHD cases. The contexts embraced small group music-making, group instrumental lessons and orchestra rehearsals for pupils with a formal assessment of ADHD, and with observations across several school terms.

    Overall, despite the three core attributes of ADHD (inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity) being evidenced at different moments in participants’ music making, these were not persistent, nor exhibited in ways that prevented successful musical engagement. Furthermore, analyses of the data suggest that the teacher’s perception of ADHD in music is related to the pedagogical approach adopted and the ways that the educational experience is set up. Consequently, the findings suggest that, in spite of ADHD’s impairing symptoms, it is possible for an individual with ADHD to engage successfully in music and acquire musical skills, particularly when the pedagogy is effective.

    Keywords: Music Education, ADHD

  • Debbie Lynn Wolf

    Debbie Lynn Wolf

    Cairn University – USA

    Music Teacher Motivation and Satisfaction: Cross-Cultural Comparison of Australia and the United States

    This research compared perspectives on motivation and satisfaction in teaching music between in-service music teachers from Australia and the United States. Music teachers currently teaching in preschool through 12th grade (P-12) public and private schools in Australia (n = 88) and the United States (n = 476) completed a web-based survey following an emailed invitation.   Results indicate that music teachers from both countries described similar motivation, satisfaction, and commitment to the profession. Few differences were noted between the two groups of teachers despite distinctions in their culture and music education systems. Differences between Australian and USA respondents were revealed in their perception of student ratings and the characteristics perceived to be most important to student success in future music experiences. Findings revealed that music teachers in this study were more comparable than different, and showed that music education was a meaningful, rewarding, and enjoyable career for most Australian and USA respondents.

    Keywords: music education, music teachers, motivation, satisfaction, cultural differences, career choice